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01.05.09

Population Association of America 2009

Population Association of America (PAA) 2009 Annual Meeting Program

 




Session 107:
Indigenous Peoples


Friday, May 01
10:30 AM - 12:20 PM
Brule A

Chair: C. Matthew Snipp, Stanford University
Discussant: Carolyn A. Liebler, University of Minnesota

 


1.

Demographic and Socioeconomic Inequalities between Whites and Indigenous in Brazil •  Cláudio S. Dias Júnior, Federal University of Minas Gerais - Brazil

This article describes and compares some major demographic and socioeconomic indicators between whites and indigenous populations in Brazil. Using data from the 2000 Brazilian demographic Census, we analyzed the 15 Brazilian municipalities with the highest percentage of indigenous people. Our results show that when compared to whites, the indigenous population is younger: has elevated dependence ratio; has higher fertility level and infant mortality; present unfavorable socioeconomic conditions, such as lower education and income; and live in households with little access to electricity, piped water and sewage. The fact that the indigenous population represents an expressive percentage of the total population in the 15 municipalities analyzed does not mean that it has demographic and socioeconomic conditions similar to those of the white population.

See paper.


2.

Tribal Casino Impacts on American Indian Household Well-Being •  Robin J. Anderson, U.S. Census Bureau

The Indian Gaming Regulation Act was passed in 1988, and in subsequent years, tribal gaming revenues increased dramatically. However, it has been unclear how tribal casinos impact different types of American Indian households’ well-being. I apply a difference-in-difference methodology to 1990 and 2000 data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to address this question. When casino effects are split by householders’ sex and education, they are primarily on female-headed households. Casinos significantly increase household per capita income of female-headed households without a high school degree by $891 to $1859. However, casinos reduce per capita assistance income of all female-headed households. Casinos also reduce deep poverty rates of female-headed households with at least a high school degree by seven to eight percentage points and near poverty rates of female-headed households with less than a high school degree by 11 to 14 percentage points.


3.

Poverty among the Indigenous People of Chile: An Empirical Analysis •  David Ader, Pennsylvania State University


4. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Effect of Bilingual Schooling on the Educational Outcomes of Indigenous Children in Mexico •  Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Population Council; Kelly Hallman, Population Council

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Session 136:
Indigenous Peoples: Asia


Friday, May 01
2:30 PM - 4:20 PM
Cadillac A

Chair: C. Matthew Snipp, Stanford University
Discussant: Karl Eschbach, University of Texas at San Antonio

 


1.

How Much the Indigenous Women of Jharkhand, India Are in Disadvantageous Condition: Finding’s from India’s National Family Health Survey •  Praween Kumar Agrawal, India HIV/AIDS Alliance

Indigenous populations are the most marginalised and vulnerable communities in India which constitutes 8.2% of India’s total population, four times higher than the total population of Australia. The state of Jharkhand accounts for 27.7% of the total indigenous population of India. This paper compares the health and socioeconomic indicators between indigenous and non-indigenous women in Jharkhand in terms of “disadvantage ratio” by exploring data of 1,614 ever-married women from National Family Health Survey–2. Our analysis revealed a highly disadvantageous situation for indigenous women in socio-demographics, fertility, family planning and in the important aspects of health, nutrition and health care indicators when compared to non-indigenous women. Indigenous women of Jharkhand are not only backward from indigenous women of all India in different parameters; they are also disadvantageous when compared to other women within the state itself. The finding calls for urgent implementation of special health care strategies for reducing health and socioeconomic-demographic disparities among the indigenous population of Jharkhand.

See paper.


2.

Demographic Dynamics of Indigenous People in India •  Sharma Lokpriy, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)

India has the second largest concentration of indigenous population in the world. The objective of this paper is to outline the demographic scenario of this vulnerable group of people by using data from Census of India 1981, 1991 and 2001. For the present study, in order to have a better understanding of the demographic situation of the tribal communities, the state and territories are grouped into seven regions. There are 577 tribes in India located in five major tribal belts across the country. Indian tribes constitute about 8.2% of the national population and mostly they inhabit the central belt and the north eastern part of India. The study reaffirmed that illiteracy, higher level of dependency and poor access to the outer world makes the tribal population socially vulnerable. Nevertheless, sex ratio and work participation rate especially for women are quite high in the indigenous people of India.

See paper.


3.

Reaching Reproductive Health for the Indigenous people in Bangladesh •  Shariful Islam, Partners in Population and Development (PPD)

Almost one million indigenous people live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, a hard-to-reach post-conflict region with virtually no access to Reproductive Health (RH) services or general health care services. The United Nations Development Programme initiated a health pilot initiative to improve the RH situation of the indigenous people of the areas through mobile medical teams, community based female health workers and partnerships. Capacity building of the local government and stakeholders and joint collaborative programmes were established. Maternal and child deaths recorded were lowest compared to the averages of the last 10 years. 43% of deliveries were attended by skilled attendants compared to only 13% in the previous year. One hundred seven Emergency referrals were provided to District Hospitals. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased to 85% from 54% in a year. Providing logistics support to Government Health staffs helped to increase program effectiveness. Health Structures of partner organizations were utilized, thus pooling resources and maximizing utilization of resources and services.

See extended abstract.

4.

Impact of Traditional Cultural Values on Acceptance of Health Care Systems among the Santhals of Orissa •  Purujit Praharaj, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)

Acceptance of the modern health care system and medicines among tribal people is continued to be a matter of debate among social scientists, planners and policy-makers. The foundation of entire tribal beliefs and practices stand on their parochial perception of and reaction to natural and supernatural entities. They find themselves closely knit with these two entities in every sphere of life. Thus, the perception about health and health-seeking behaviour of the tribal people obviously is the fusion of these two basic entities. The present study reveals that lack of emotional content and spiritual security in the modern health care system mainly stands as a barrier to its acceptance among the tribal people. In such an environment, the traditional health care system continues to dominate; the traditional healer, who is considered as the guardian of tribal society, acts as the medium between man, nature and supernatural entity and provides spiritual security to the tribal people.

See paper.

 

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FUENTE

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